Sunday, 25 December 2011

IP Addresses and TCP/IP model (Hard)

IP Addresses

 What is an IP address?

 There are two types of IP addresses. We have used IPv4 addresses up until now but we are running out of IP addresses to give, so we have created IPv6 addresses. The "4" and the "6" relate to how many bits are in the address e.g. 4 = (total of 32 bytes). IPv6 addresses also include letters as well as numbers.

An IP address is given to each device whenever it accesses a network e.g. Think of it as the computers identification.

What is the format of an IP address?

The format of an IP address consists of 4 different numbers separated by a full stop. Each number is a byte or 8 bits (total 4 bytes and 32 bits) The number is written in binary (01011) so the maximum number available as an IP address is

Difference between a class A, B and C IP address.

Class A –  Each IP has a specific location that it is assigned to. They use the location and the network it will connect to. ( 192 would be the network it connects to)  Class A Is given to very large companies as there are a lot of IP addresses available.
Class B –  Is given to service providers and small companies like a college.
Class C – Is given to small to mid-size companies.

What are the four layers of the TCP/IP model?

The four layers of the TCP/IP model are –
Network access layer

Function of each of the four layers in the TCP/IP model with examples of Protocols for each layer.
Application layer –  This layer is what the user uses to send/request the packets e.g. FTP, SMTP.
Transport layer – Sends the packets to the destination. This layer is responsible for checking to see if the packets arrived uncorrupted e.g. TCP/IP, UDP.
Internet layer – Responsible for sending the data over a network.
Network access layer – This is used to transfer data to different nodes on a network e.g. Ethernet, IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN.

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